What type of HR organization best fits with global, multinational, international and transnational organizations? Multinational organizations mainly focus on decentralization and independent Global HR function as it tries to capture local market share. when parent countries introduced its product or service to different countries. The strategy they implement in one nation might change when introducing same products to other countries. So, depending on the fluctuation of market subsidiary adjust their strategies. Adjustment is influenced by struggles faced in the particular region and consumer behavior. The particular plan developed for that region might not work elsewhere. This type of HR organization typically accommodates companies with product-based or geographic based structures. The HR role at the headquarter is typically developing a function to its subsidiaries and aligning organizational structure around the world. Corporate HR can sometimes introduce informal processes to a degree of corporate integration, for example motivating leadership and management to support international transfers for development purposes. Coca-cola is the example of a multinational company which is decentralized and interdependent.Global organizations HR function are the exact opposite of multinational organization. They are generally centralized and dependent. All necessary plans and procedures are formulated at the headquarter and subsidiaries are required to implement it regardless of difficulties they might face at the local level. This type of HR organization is implemented in firms with product-based or matrix organizational structures. Matrix organizational structure is where managers from different department work together to achieve the common goal. The major role of HR is to create and maintain control over all upper-level management positions worldwide. Headquarter HR has a full authority to define all the top management role position and can decide who will transfer as an expatriate and what his work role will be in that country. The HR function in these companies is large, well-resourced and responsible formalizing companies worldwide. The majority of this type has group-wide assessment and performance management systems for top management. Toyota is a global company which is very formal and centralized.International organizations HR function is similar to global organizations. It focuses on centralized and dependent on parent companies for day to day operation. However, headquarter might change their policy looking at the local market. Like global organization, HR has a full control over management roles and decided who will transfer to another country and what are his duties. Although it is supposed to be formal per policy in practice manager at the local level might influence corporate HR to make a modification that will help thrive the company and maintain their value as well. The HR managers’ role is largely that of champion of the process.Transnational organizations are decentralized and interdependent Global HR functions. Headquarter HR is composed of a small number of people whose main duty is to integrate and coordinate activities with the host nation. They are also responsible to introduce company culture to the subsidiaries and encourage everyone to continue following it. They also align organizational strategy worldwide and influence the operational company to motivate subsidiaries and expatriates.Chapter 4Explain how the process of recontextualization changes the meaning associated with an HRM policy or practice.People tend to perceive things differently. A handshake with elderly is considered well cultured over here in the USA but in Nepal, you must bow without making a physical contact. So, when procedures and processes are transferred from one country to another it forms a new meaning in the new socio-cultural context which is commonly referred as recontextualization. The concept of recontextualization help tracks meaning attached to procedures and processes as they move from one social context to another. When conducting business globally International Human resource management might have to make an adjustment such as their hand gesture or how they address their employee to avoid any kind of conflict within the organization.The term semiosis is a detail explanation of recontextualization. It includes signs, word, appearance or symbol. For Instance, in Nepal people believes if a black cat crosses the street it is regarded as a bad symbol. So, it is essential that human resource management learn semiosis in a detailed way. Similarly, when parent country carries its procedures and policies to the host nation local people will interpret them using the pre-existing frame of reference. An example is how American interpreted sushi as raw fish. In Japan, sushi is one of their traditional food which includes vinegared rice, uncooked or cooked seafood and vegetables. But, sushi was recontextualized as raw fish in the USA. Another type of Semiosis is when the policies and procedures get transferred it gets restructured in the new environment. When Sushi was first introduced Americans was kind of hesitant to eat raw fish so it needed some modification. As a result, California roll was introduced in the local market. California Roll is also a type of sushi which is made with cooked crab and avocado this is an example of further recontextualization that is more acceptable for locally. Finally, last recontextualization or diffusion can occur is the policy of procedure is repatriated to its country of origin. The example would be finding the California roll in Japanese sushi bar.In conclusion, recontextualization is definitive so international firms should be well prepared to tackle it. They should learn how people in the host countries perceive things and global firms should act accordingly. A mishandle might create a big confusion that might impact the organization and its customer.Outline the possible patterns of diffusion of an HRM practice. What factors would be likely to generate each pattern? Process and procedure are not always transferred from parent country to host country. In many cases, it transfers back to the parent nation which is described as cultural diffusion. For instance, people in the United States celebrating Cinco de Mayo which is the tradition of Mexican people. Americans playing hockey which is played in Canada. In the textbook, eight different patterns of diffusion have been described based on the order and direction of transfer. • Flow: Traditions or practices that are being followed in both the host as well as a parent. An example would be celebrating Christmas back in Nepal and USA. • All-together: When multinational companies decide to expand their business in the foreign land. They will encounter problems that are only existed in that nation or region. If Honda wants to sell their car in Denmark they have to sell customized tires in order to drive in the snow and icy roads otherwise they won’t be able to sell their products. However, Honda-USA does not have to implement that plan here in the USA.• Horizontal: It is a pattern when one practice is to implement in one subsidiary which gets so effective and parent country decides to use the same procedure in another subsidiary. For instance, bottle coca cola got very popular in India and they introduced the same strategy to all south Asian countries and is very popular.• Smorgasbord: A policy that is introduced by the headquarter but it is not mandatory for the subsidiary to implement is known as a smorgasbord, Smorgasbord is derived from Swedish word which means a buffet style serving of food where the guest has option to select how much and which food to eat. For example, Honda has different types of car but host country will decide what type of car local people can afford and in what quantity.• Strict reverse: it is a pattern where some ideas or strategy gets so popular in the subsidiary they introduce to the parent nation. If the snow resistant tires perform at a higher level in Denmark Honda might use the same tire here in the United State to some of the states where there is more snowfall• Re-import: it is a process where plans and policies are forwarded to the host nation and it gets some modification and the new product gets introduced to the parent nation. Offering California roll in Japanese Sushi bar can be the example of re-import.• Chain: this pattern is created when the same product is being used differently among host nations and whichever product is popular the same products will be forwarded to other subsidiaries. If Honda uses the same kind of car to Norway that was slightly modified in Denmark that can be defined as a chain.• Multi-source: when parent nation and host nation work together to make some changes in the product and same product is being used by other subsidiaries it is a pattern of multi-source. It is not a very usual form of a pattern. If Honda-USA and Honda-Japan work together to build a new type of car and introduces to India it will be a multi-source diffusion.As defined in the textbook pattern for diffusion of HR practices is dependent on four main factors. These are the nationality of the parent firm, the configuration of the MNE, the organizational conduits through which the practices may be diffused, and the relative influence of each of the national operations.