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Which is the Hardest Water?Chemistry Experimental Denise Harris640 W. Scott St.Chicago,IL 60610Grade 8Table of ContentsAcknowledgements                                                                                                                          3Purpose and Hypothesis                                                                                                                   4Review of Literature                                                                                                                        5Materials and Procedure                                                                                                                  7Results                                                                                                                                              9Conclusion, Reflection, and Application                                                                                       12                                                                               Reference List                                                                                                                                13                                                                                                            Acknowledgements Thank you to Ms. Machado for clearing up any confusion there was on the project, and thanks to my mom for getting the necessities needed to complete my project.  Purpose and HypothesisPurpose: The purpose of the  project was to figure out which out of the three types of water was the hardest.Hypothesis: Tap water is the hardest out of spring, distilled, and tap because it is bad on the skin and is hard on dishes. While spring is great for skin, and distilled works better on dishes.Review of LiteratureHard water is defined by water that is high in dissolved minerals, especially calcium and magnesium. Soft water doesn’t have the minerals that hard water has. It only has H2O molecules. Rainwater is where both types of water come from. Rainwater is pure water, it’s neutral, neither acidic or basic. The reason rainwater is considered to even be slightly acidic, is because it can contain dissolved gases from the air making it a weak acid. Rainwater passes through the “calcium-containing” limestone that reacts with the minerals and turns it into a state where it can be dissolved. To get hard water, when it rains the water goes through collecting minerals and having it dissolve in the water. Then this water is sent to homes through the tap. To get soft water people put resin beads to remove the minerals from the hard water. Hard and soft water have their benefits and disadvantages, but neither is harmful. For soft water people like to use this to wash up or wash dishes because it mixes with soap better than hard water does. You don’t have to use as much soap and it allows your body to use natural oils to keep your hair in better shape. Hard water makes you use more soap and it’s harder to clean yourself with because it’s hard for soap to break down with hard water. It can clog your skin or leave a sticky residue when showering. It doesn’t do much better with your hair either, it usually ends up leaving people’s hair feeling rough and dry. For washing up or cleaning soft water is preferred because it is easier to use and doesn’t have the minerals hard water does. Hard water is wanted to use more as drinking water because it gives you health benefits and adds flavor to the water. Soft water is salty so it’s not what people usually prefer for drinking water. Hard water can leave spots and residue on dishes, make clothes and hair look dull, leave the bathtubs with soap scum, and can wear down household appliances. Hard water has been untouched by any chemical process unlike specific waters like tap and distilled. Tap water is treated with a lot of chemicals in order to kill bacteria and other microorganisms. As a result it can contain undesirable contaminants. In distilled water  it has had impurities removed through distillation.  Some positives about hard water is that it has all the natural minerals and because of this, the advantage in drinking hard water is that it fights and prevents certain heart and cardiovascular diseases.  Disadvantages in hard water is that it “comes in the form of scale build up inside the plumbing system”, this reduces the efficiency of household appliances. Another con is that hard water can have an earthy smell to a strong sulfur smell which causes people to dislike drinking it.In soft water there is sodium and drinking it on the daily basis increases sodium levels, and although sodium levels are needed in a balanced diet excess sodium causes cardiovascular health problems. Since the average person consumes too much sodium, soft water increases that risk. Another health risk that is caused by soft water is blood cells and the process to where oxygen is taken in the body being harmed. This is because lead can easily get into soft water.  With all the different pros and cons to each type of water it depends on what you want to use the water for to know if it will be the best choice. Materials and ProcedureProcedure-Gather your materialsLabel the plastic containers with each of the water types that you’ll be testingPut the same amount of water in each container and record the amount in your journalWith the permanent marker mark where the water is once it is stillIn your notebook create a data table like thisHeight of Soap BubblesTrialsTap WaterDistilled waterSpring Water123Average6. In your notebook write how many drops of soap you’ll put in each container7. Put however many drops you recorded in one container8. Put the lid on each container9. Use your stopwatch to set the time for 15 seconds10. Shake the container for 15 seconds11. Set it down after shaking it, take the lid off, and measure from the inside the height of the bubbles from where the permanent marker line is12. Record your results in your notebook and then repeat steps 7-11 for the other 2 containers13. If the bubbles go to the top of the container start over and change one or all the controls14. After trial 1 empty the containers and repeat the experiment 2 more timesMaterialsQuantityPermanent MarkerPlastic Containers(same kind)Distilled WaterSpring WaterTap WaterMetric Measuring CupLiquid Dishwashing soapStopwatchNotebookRuler13 containers1,422 mL1,422 mL1,422 mL115 drops1(the one on  my phone)11ResultsHeight of Soap BubblesTrialsTap WaterDistilled waterSpring Water1?  inches?  inches? inches21 ¾ inches1 ½ inches1 ½ inches3¾ inches? inches¾ inchesAverage1.1 inches1.033.958For each container there was 5 drops of soap in it, and then it was shaken for 15 seconds. Each time when repeating a trial the same amount of water was used(2 cups). The ending result was unexpected, and goes against the hypothesis. The hypothesis is that tap water is the hardest water out of distilled, spring, and tap itself. However during the experiment tap water continuously made more bubbles than the distilled or mineral water. This shows that tap water is the least likely to have been the hardest water. At the end of the experiment spring water was the hardest water out of the 3.Conclusion, Reflection, and ApplicationConclusion:  My science fair project is about which hard water works the best. I wanted to find this out because I learned that hard water isn’t the same everywhere and it affects the things we use. I tested this by seeing which hard water produced the most bubbles. The harder the water the less bubbles they’ll be because it’s hard for soap to break down in hard water. During the experiment I noticed that the tap water had more bubbles, meaning that it was the least hardest out of the 3 types. This proved my hypothesis wrong because spring water ended up being the hardest water not tap. I learned that tap has more chemical processes than spring or distilled, and that it doesn’t have as many minerals as I thought it did.Reflection: This experiment was because of my curiosity of hard and soft water, and I think this experiment was accurate in its findings. This experiment is great just the way it is, and if I or other people wanted to do this experiment in a different way, you could see how each hard water cleans your face or dishes. From this you’d  be able to tell which one works the best for your face or you could experiment on its cleaning abilities when it comes to chores. Application: My experiment could give more support to people who have already claimed how hard water works and its effects. This experiment is perfect for anyone wanting to know if they have to change the way they wash their hair, face, etc. It would be really helpful because then you won’t be eating anything dirty and you’ll be satisfied that you looked into what does soft water and hard water work best for?Reference ListAlbin, S. (2013, April 06). Product Specialist for ShowerGuard | Reading, Allentown, and Pottstown | Berks & Lehigh. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from http://scottalbinglass.com/what-is-hard-water/Bennett, W. (n.d.). Home Warranty Service Provider | Landmark Home Warranty. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://www.landmarkhw.com/resources/plumbing/the-difference-between-hard-and-soft-water/2/21whatissoftwaterWater Systems, A. (n.d.). Hard vs soft water explained. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from http://freedrinkingwater.com/water-education/quality-water-hard.htmWater Softener Critic. (n.d.). Soft Water vs Hard Water – What are the Health Benefits? Retrieved November 19, 2017, from http://www.watersoftenercritic.com/soft-water-vs-hard-water/Mcpaul, R. (n.d.). Hard Water and Laundering. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://www.h2odistributors.com/pages/info/hard-water-laundering.aspScience Buddies Staff. (2017, July 28). Shaking for Suds: Which Type of Water is the Hardest?. Retrieved November 19, 2017 from https://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project-ideas/Chem_p094/chemistry/water-harnessSummary. (2017, October 24). Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://www.bls.gov/ooh/life-physical-and-social-science/hydrologists.htm?view_fullBase (chemistry). (2017, October 25). Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Base_(chemistry)Geoff, G. (n.d.). What’s in your drinking water? Retrieved November 19, 2017, from http://freshlysqueezedwater.org.uk/waterarticle_watercontent.phpKrause, R. (2016, March 29). A Very Scientific Experiment: I Washed My Face with Bottled Water for a Week. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from http://stylecaster.com/beauty/wash-face-bottled-water/

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